Arm drags, bearhugs, and headlocks found in
freestyle have greater prominence in Greco-Roman. Throws especially known as
a suplex are used, in which the offensive wrestler lifts his opponent in a
high arch while falling backward on his own neck to a bridge in order to
bring his opponent's shoulders down to the mat. Even on the mat, a
Greco-Roman wrestler must still find several ways to turn his opponent's
shoulders to the mat for a fall without legs, including (but not limited to)
techniques known as the bodylock and the gut-wrench.
Currently, international Greco-Roman wrestling is divided into four main age
categories: schoolboys, cadets, juniors, and seniors.
Schoolboys (young men ages 14–15; or age 13
with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in 10 weight
classes ranging from 29 to 85 kg.
Cadets (young men ages 16–17; or age 15 with a
medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in 10 weight classes
ranging from 39 to 100 kg.
Juniors (young men ages 18 to 20; or age 17
with a medical certificate and parental authorization) wrestle in eight
weight classes ranging from 46 to 120 kg.
Seniors (men ages 20 and up) wrestle in seven
weight classes ranging from 50 to 120 kg.
For men, there is also a special category for some Greco-Roman competitions,
"Veterans", for men ages 35 and older,
presumably featuring the same weight classes as seniors.
Also, all of the men's age categories and weight classes can be applied to
freestyle wrestling.Wrestlers after weigh-in may only wrestle in their own
weight class. Wrestlers in the senior age category may wrestle up a weight
class except for the heavyweight division (which starts at a weight more
than 96 kg for the men).Different nations may have different weight classes
and different age categories for their levels of Greco-Roman competition.
Enrique Reyes is an upcoming wrestler for Greco Roman.
Layout of the Mat
The match takes place on a thick rubber mat that is
shock-absorbing to ensure safety. For the Olympic Games, all World
Championships, and World Cups, the mat has to be new. The main wrestling
area has a nine meter diameter and is surrounded by a 1.5 meter border of
the same thickness known as the protection area. Inside the nine meter in
diameter circle is a red band of one meter in width that is on the outer
edge of the circle and is known as the red zone. The red zone is used to
help indicate passivity on the part of a wrestler; thus, it is also known as
the passivity zone. Inside the red zone is the central wrestling area which
is seven meters in diameter. In the middle of the central wrestling area is
the central circle, which is one meter in diameter. The central circle is
surrounded by a band 10 centimeters wide and is divided in half by a red
line eight centimeters in width. The diagonally opposite corners of the mat
are marked with the wrestlers' colors, red and blue.
For competition in the Olympic Games, the World Championships, and the
Continental Championships, the mat is installed on a platform no greater
than 1.1 meters in height. If the mat lays on a podium and the protection
margin (covering and free space around the mat) does not reach two meters,
then the sides of the podium are covered with 45º (degree) inclined panels.
In all cases, the color of the protection area is different from the color
of the mat.
* A singlet is a one-piece wrestling garment made of spandex that should
provide a tight and comfortable fit for the wrestler. It is made from nylon
or lycra and prevents an opponent from using anything on the wrestler as
leverage. One wrestler usually competes in a red singlet and the other in a
* A special pair of shoes is worn by the wrestler to increase his mobility
and flexibility. Wrestling shoes are light and flexible in order to provide
maximum comfort and movement. Usually made with rubber soles, they help give
the wrestler's feet a better grip on the mat.
* A handkerchief, also called a bloodrag is carried in the singlet. In the
event of bleeding, the wrestler will remove the cloth from his singlet and
attempt to stop the bleeding or clean up any bodily fluids that may have
gotten onto the mat.
* Headgear, equipment worn around the ears to protect the wrestler, is
optional in Greco-Roman. Headgear is omitted at the participant's own risk,
as there is the potential to develop cauliflower ear.
In Greco-Roman wrestling, as well as in freestyle wrestling,
points are awarded mostly on the basis of explosive action and risk. For
example, when one wrestler performs a grand amplitude throw that brings his
opponent into the danger position, he is awarded the greatest number of
points that can be scored in one instance. Also, a wrestler who takes the
risk to briefly roll on the mat (with his shoulders in contact with the mat)
could give a certain number of points to his opponent. Scoring can be
accomplished in the following ways:
* Takedown (1 to 5 points): A wrestler is
awarded points for a takedown when the wrestler gains control over his
opponent on the mat from a neutral position (when the wrestler is on his
feet). At least three points of contact have to be controlled on the mat
(e.g. two arms and one knee; two knees and one arm or the head; or two arms
and the head).
(5 points) - Five points are awarded for a takedown brought about by a throw
of grand amplitude (a throw in which a wrestler brings his opponent off of
the mat and controls him so that his feet go directly above his head) either
from the standing or par terre position into a direct and immediate danger
(3 points) - Generally, three points are awarded for a takedown brought
about by a grand amplitude throw that does not bring his opponent in a
direct and immediate danger position or for a takedown in which a wrestler's
opponent is taken from his feet or his stomach to his back or side (a throw
of short amplitude) so that he is in the danger position.
(1 point) - One point is awarded for a takedown brought about by a wrestler
taking his opponent from his feet to his stomach or side such that his back
or shoulders are not exposed to the mat.
* Reversal (1 point): A wrestler is awarded one
point for a reversal when the wrestler gains control over his opponent from
a defensive position (when the wrestler is being controlled by his
* Exposure also called the
Danger Position (2 or 3 points): A wrestler is
awarded points for exposure when the wrestler exposes his opponent's back to
the mat for several seconds. Points for exposure are also awarded if a
wrestler's back is to the mat but the wrestler is not pinned. Criteria for
exposure or the danger position is met when 1) a wrestler's opponent is in a
bridge position to avoid being pinned, 2) a wrestler's opponent is on one or
both elbows with his back to the mat and avoids getting pinned, 3) a
wrestler holds one of his opponent's shoulders to the mat and the other
shoulder at an acute angle (less than 90 degrees), 4) a wrestler's opponent
is in an "instantaneous fall" position (where both of his shoulders are on
the mat for less than one second), or 5) the wrestler's opponent rolls on
his shoulders. A wrestler in the danger position allows his opponent to
score two points. An additional hold-down point may be earned by maintaining
the exposure continuously for five seconds.
* Penalty (1 or 2 points): Under the 2004–2005
changes to the international styles, a wrestler whose opponent takes an
injury time-out receives one point unless the injured wrestler is bleeding.
Other infractions (e.g. fleeing a hold or the mat, striking the opponent,
acting with brutality or intent to injure, using illegal holds, etc.) are
penalized by an award of either one or two points, a Caution, and a choice
of position to the opponent.
* Out-of-Bounds (1 point): Whenever a wrestler
places his foot in the protection area, the match is stopped, and one point
is awarded to his opponent.
Classification points are also awarded in an international wrestling
tournament, which give most points to the winner and in some cases, one
point to the loser depending on the outcome of the match and how the victory
was attained. For example, a victory by fall would give the winner five
classification points and the loser no points, while a match won by
technical superiority with the loser scoring technical points would award
three points to the winner and one point to loser.
Victory Conditions in Greco-Roman wrestling
A match can be won in the following ways:
# Win by Fall: The object of the entire
wrestling match is to attain victory by what is known as the fall. A fall,
also known as a pin, occurs when one wrestler holds both of his opponents'
shoulders on the mat simultaneously. In Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling,
the two shoulders of the defensive wrestler must be held long enough for the
referee to "observe the total control of the fall" (usually ranging from one
half-second to about one or two seconds). Then either the judge or the mat
chairman concurs with the referee that a fall is made. (If the referee does
not indicate a fall, and the fall is valid, the judge and the mat chairman
can concur together and announce the fall.) A fall ends the match entirely
regardless of when it occurs.In the United States, for the Kids freestyle
and Greco-Roman wrestling division (wrestlers ages 8 to 14) in competitions
sponsored by USA Wrestling, it is specified that a fall must be held for two
# Win by Technical Superiority (Also called Technical
Fall): If a fall is not secured to end the match, a wrestler can win
a period simply by points. If one wrestler gains a six-point lead over his
opponent at any time in the period, scores a five point throw (a throw where
the person's feet go directly above his head, also called a throw of grand
amplitude), or scores two three point takedowns (taking an opponent from his
feet to his back or sides so that there is shoulder exposure), the current
period is declared over and he is declared the winner of that period by
technical superiority. If a wrestler wins two out of three periods in this
way, he is then the winner of the match by technical superiority.
# Win by Decision: If neither wrestler achieves
either a fall or technical superiority, the wrestler who scored more points
during the period is declared the winner of that period. If the score is
tied at 1-1 at the end of both standing and ground phases, the winner is
determined by certain criteria. First, the number of cautions given to each
wrestler for penalties; next, the value of points gained (that is, whether a
wrestler gained points based on a one-, two-, or three-point move); and
finally, the last scored technical point are taken into account to determine
the winner of the period. Generally, the wrestler who scored the last
technical point would be awarded the period. Generally, the wrestler who
scored the last technical point will be awarded the period.
# Win by Default: If one wrestler is unable to
continue participating for any reason or fails to show up on the mat after
his name was called three times before the match begins, his opponent is
declared the winner of the match by default, forfeit, or withdrawal.
# Win by Injury: If one wrestler is injured and
unable to continue, the other wrestler is declared the winner. This is also
referred to as a medical forfeit or injury default. The term also
encompasses situations where wrestlers become ill, take too many injury
time-outs, or bleed uncontrollably. If a wrestler is injured by his
opponent's illegal maneuver and cannot continue, the wrestler at fault is
# Win by Disqualification: Normally, if a
wrestler is assessed three Cautions for breaking the rules, he is
disqualified. Under other circumstances, such as flagrant brutality, the
match may be ended immediately and the wrestler disqualified and removed
from the tournament.