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Archery is the art of propelling arrows with the use of a bow.Archery has historically been used for hunting and combat; in modern times, however, its main use is that of a recreational activity.One who practices archery is typically known as an "archer" or "bowman.

Archery was highly developed in Asia and in the Islamic world. In East Asia the ancient Korean civilizations were well-known for their archery skills.Central Asian and American Plains tribesmen were extremely adept at archery on horseback.

The bow seems to have been invented by the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic. The oldest indication for archery in Europe comes from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg, Germany and date from the late Paleolithic about 9000-8000 BC. The arrows were made of pine and consisted of a mainshaft and a 15-20 centimetre (6-8 inches) long foreshaft with a flint point. There are no known definite earlier bows, but stone points which have been identified as arrowheads were made in Africa by about 6000 years ago.

The oldest bows known so far come from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. In the 1940s, two bows were found there. The Holmegaard bows are made of elm and have flat arms and a D-shaped midsection. The center section is biconvex. The complete bow is 1.50 m (5 ft) long. Bows of Holmegaard-type were in use until the Bronze Age; the convexity of the midsection has decreased with time.
Mesolithic pointed shafts have been found in England, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. They were often rather long (up to 120 cm 4 ft) and made of European hazel (Corylus avellana), wayfaring tree (Viburnum lantana) and other small woody shoots. Some still have flint arrow-heads preserved; others have blunt wooden ends for hunting birds and small game. The ends show traces of fletching, which was fastened on with birch-tar.

Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian culture since its predynastic origins. The "Nine Bows" symbolize the various peoples that had been ruled over by the pharaoh since Egypt was united.

In the Levant, artifacts which may be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, (ca. 12,800-10,300 BP) onwards. The Khiamian and PPN A shouldered Khiam-points may well be arrowheads.

Classical civilizations, notably the Persians, Parthians, Indians, Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Arrows were destructive against massed formations, and the use of archers often proved decisive. The Sanskrit term for archery, dhanurveda, came to refer to martial arts in general.
Archers are deities or heroes in several mythologies, including Greek Artemis and Apollo, Roman Diana and Cupid, Germanic Agilaz, continued in legends like those of William Tell, Palnetoke, or Robin Hood. Armenian Hayk and Babylonian Marduk, Indian Arjuna and Rama, and Persian Arash were all archers. Earlier Greek representations of Heracles normally depict him as an archer.

In East Asia, Yi the archer features in several early Chinese myths, and the historical character of Zhou Tong features in many fictional forms. Jumong, the first Taewang of the Goguryeo kingdom of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, is claimed by legend to have been a near-godlike archer.
While there is great variety in the construction details of bows (both historic and modern) all bows consist of a string attached to elastic limbs that store mechanical energy imparted by the user drawing the string. Bows may be broadly split into two categories: those drawn by pulling the string directly and those that use a mechanism to pull the string.

Directly drawn bows may be further divided based upon differences in the method of limb construction, notable examples being self bows, laminated bows and composite bows. Bows can also be classified by the bow shape of the limbs when unstrung; in contrast to simple straight bows, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is unstrung. The cross-section of the limb also varies; the classic longbow is a tall bow with narrow limbs that are D-shaped in cross section, and the flatbow has flat wide limbs that are approximately rectangular in cross-section.

Cable-backed bows use cords as the back of the bow; the draw weight of the bow can be adjusted by changing the tension of the cable. They were widespread among Inuit who lacked easy access to good bow wood. One variety of cable-backed bow is the Penobscot bow or Wabenaki bow, invented by Frank Loring (Chief Big Thunder) about 1900. It consists of a small bow attached by cables on the back of a larger main bow.

A compound bow is a bow designed to reduce the force required to hold the string at full draw, allowing the archer more time to aim. Most compound designs use cams or elliptical wheels on the ends of the limbs to achieve this. A typical let-off is anywhere from 65%–75% – for example, a 60-pound bow with 75% let-off will only require 15–20 pounds of force to hold at full draw. Up to 99% let-off is possible.
Mechanically drawn bows typically have a stock or other mounting, such as the crossbow. They are not limited by the strength of a single archer, and larger varieties have been used as siege engines.
Bows made of Green wood (undried), are mainly used in survival situations to provide food for the survivor. Green wood bows are usually and made the best out of Pine. Draw weights are usually 25 pounds and below, only made for hunting small game such as rabbits, birds, and fish.

The most common form of arrow consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end and with fletchings and a nock attached to the other end. Shafts are typically composed of solid wood, fiberglass, aluminum alloy, carbon fiber, or composite materials. Wooden arrows are prone to warping. Fiberglass arrows are brittle, but can be produced to uniform specifications easily. Aluminum shafts were a very popular high-performance choice in the later half of the 20th century due to their straightness, lighter weight, and subsequently higher speed and flatter trajectories. Carbon fiber arrows became popular in the 1990s and are very light, flying even faster and flatter than aluminum arrows. Today, arrows made up of composite materials are the most popular tournament arrows at Olympic Events, especially the Easton X10 and A/C/E.
The arrowhead is the primary functional component of the arrow. Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, stone, or other hard materials.

The most commonly used forms are target points, field points, and broadheads, although there are also other types, such as bodkin, judo, and blunt heads.

Fletching is traditionally made from bird feathers, but also solid plastic vanes and thin sheetlike spin vanes are used. They are attached near the nock (rear) end of the arrow with thin double sided tape, glue, or, traditionally, sinew. Three fletches is the most common configuration in all cultures, though more may be used. When three-fletched the fletches are equally spaced around the shaft with one placed such that it is perpendicular to the bow when nocked on the string (though with modern equipment, variations are seen especially when using the modern spin vanes). This fletch is called the "index fletch" or "cock feather" (also known as "the odd vane out" or "the nocking vane") and the others are sometimes called the "hen feathers".

Commonly, the cock feather is of a different color, traditionally the hens are solid and the cock is barred. However, if archers are using fletching made of feather or similar material they may use same color vanes, as different dyes can give varying stiffness to vanes, resulting in less precision. Also, like-colored fletching and nocks can assist in learning instinctive shooting (i.e. without sights), a technique often preferred by "traditional" archers (shooters of longbows and recurves). When four-fletched often two opposing fletches are cock-feathers and occasionally the fletches are not evenly spaced.
The fletching may be either parabolic (short feathers in a smooth parabolic curve) or shield (generally shaped like one-half of a narrow shield) cut and is often attached at an angle, known as helical fletching, to introduce a stabilizing spin to the arrow while in flight. Whether helicial or straight fletched, when natural fletching (bird feathers) are used it is critical that all feathers come from the same side of the bird. Oversized fletchings can be used to accentuate drag and thus limit the range of the arrow significantly; these arrows are called flu-flus. Misplacement of fletchings can often change the arrow's flight path dramatically.

Target archery competitions may be held indoors or outdoors. Indoor distances are 18 m and 25 m. Outdoor distances range from 30 m to 90 m. Competition is divided into ends of 3 or 6 arrows. After each end, the competitors walk to the target to score and retrieve their arrows. Archers have a set time limit in which to shoot their arrows.
Targets are marked with 10 evenly spaced concentric rings, which have score values from 1 through 10 assigned to them. In addition, there is an inner 10 ring, sometimes called the X ring or called a bulls eye. This becomes the 10 ring at indoor compound competitions. Outdoors, it serves as a tiebreaker with the archer scoring the most X's winning. Archers score each end by summing the scores for their arrows. Line breakers, an arrow just touching a scoring boundary line, will be awarded the higher score.
Different rounds and distances use different size target faces. These range from 40 cm (18 m FITA Indoor) to 122 cm (70 m and 90 m FITA, used in Olympic competition).
A horse archer, horsed archer, or mounted archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback. Archery has occasionally been used from the backs of other riding animals. Mounted archery was the defining characteristic of Steppe warfare throughout Central Asia, and also of the southern American prairies after the adoption of the horse.Since using a bow requires a horseman to let go of the reins with both hands, horse archers need superb equestrian skills if they are to shoot on the move. It is thought that the Ancient Greeks invented the mythical Centaurs as the perfect union of an archer and a fast moving horseman.


Aluminium (material) - Used in modern archery for the production of arrows
Anchor point - area to rest lightly as the string is pulled toward the face, usually the corner of the archer's mouth or chin
AMO (organization) - The Archery Manufacturers and Merchants Organization (now known as the ATA)
AMO length (measure) - A standardized length for measuring bow strings
Archer (practitioner) - One who practices Archery (a.k.a. bowman)
Archer's paradox (effect) - The effect produced by an arrow flexing as it leaves the bow
Archery (practice) - The practice of using a bow to shoot arrows
Arm guard (equipment) - A protective strap or sheath for an archer's forearm (a.k.a. bracer)
Arrow (equipment) - The main projectile in Archery
Arrowhead (equipment) - The front end of an arrow; also known as the head, point or tip
Arrow rest (equipment) - A device used to hold the arrow against the handle until it is released
ATA (organization) - The Archery Trade Association (formerly known as the AMO)
A.T.A (measure) - An acronym for "Axel-To-Axel", the length between the two pivotal axels which hold the cams onto the limbs on a compound bow.

Blunt (equipment) - An unsharpened arrowhead used for targets and small game
Bodkin point (equipment) - A sharp, pointed arrow head
Bolt (equipment) - A crossbow projectile; also called a quarrel
Boss (equipment) - A target, typically made from tightly compacted foam or straw
Bowman (practitioner) - One who practices Archery (a.k.a. Archer)
Bow (equipment) - An ancient weapon powered by elasticity used for hunting and sport
Bowfishing (practice) - The use of archery equipment for catching fish
Bowhunting (practice) - The practice of taking game using archery
Bow string (equipment) - A fiber joining two ends of a bow for launching arrows
Bowyer (craftsman) - One who makes bows
Brace (practice) - The act of attaching a bow string to a bow
Bracer (equipment) - A protective strap or sheath for an archer's forearm (a.k.a. arm guard)
Broadhead (equipment) - A sharp-bladed hunting head
Butts (location) - A practice field with mounds of earth used as targets

Carbon fiber (material) - Used in modern archery for the production of arrows
Clicker (equipment) - A device used to indicate an archer's optimum draw length
Clout shoot (practice) - An archery game in which arrows are shot at an arc toward a flat target laid out on the ground
Cock feather (equipment) - A differently-colored fletch that indicates proper arrow alignment (a.k.a. Index feather)
Composite bow (equipment) - A bow made from laminating various materials together
Compound bow (equipment) - A modern bow that uses a system of cables and pulleys
Crest (equipment) - Heraldic markings on an arrow used for identification or design
Crossbow (equipment) - A bow mounted on a stock that shoots bolts or Quarrels

Daikyu (equipment) - A Japanese longbow
Decurve bow (equipment) - A form of bow in which the unstrung tips curve toward the archer
Deflex bow (equipment) - A form of bow in which the entire length of the handle and arms curve toward the archer
Drawing (practice) - The act of pulling an arrow against a bow string in readiness for shooting
Draw weight (measure) - The number of pounds of force required to draw a bow twenty-eight inches

End (Practice) - A round of arrows shot during an archery event (rarely more than six arrows)
English longbow (equipment) - A powerful medieval bow; also known as the Welsh longbow

Fiberglass (material) - Used in modern archery equipment for the production of both bows and arrows
Field archery (practice) - Shooting at targets of unmarked distances in an open field
Field tip (equipment) - A practice head for targets
Finger Tab (equipment) - A small leather patch to protect the archer's fingers (a.k.a Tab)
Fistmele (measure) - The proper distance between the handle of a bow and the bow string when the bow is strung
Flatbow (equipment) - A non-recurved bow with a rectangular cross section
Fletching (equipment) - The stabilizing fins or vanes of an arrow (each individual fin is a fletch)
Fletcher (craftsman) - One who makes and attaches fletching for arrows
Flex (measure) - The amount of "bend" an arrow shaft provides; contrasted with Spine
Flu-Flu Arrow (equipment) - A specially designed short-range arrow
Footed arrow (equipment) - An arrow with a shaft composed of two types of wood

Game (target) - Non-domesticated animals hunted for food or sport
Glove (equipment) - Protective gear for an archer's fingers (a.k.a. Shooting glove)
Gungdo (practice) - The Korean art of archery

Hankyu (equipment) - A short Japanese bow
Head (equipment) - The front end of an arrow; also known as the arrowhead, point or tip
Hen feather (equipment) - One of two like-colored vanes on an arrow that is not the index feather
Horse archer (practitioner) - An archer mounted on a horse

Index fletching (equipment) - A differently-colored fletch that indicates proper arrow alignment (a.k.a. Cock fletching)

Judo points (equipment) - A target and small-game head equipped with spring wires for easy location

Kisser (equipment) - A button used to indicate consistent vertical distance when drawing a bow
Kyudo (practice) - The Japanese art of archery

Longbow (equipment) - A tall bow without significant recurve
Loose (practice) - The act of shooting an arrow from a bow (a.k.a. Release)

Mounted archer (practitioner) - An archer mounted on a horse
Mongolian draw (practice) - The act of drawing a bow with one's thumb (a.k.a. Mongolian release)

Nock (equipment) - The notch at the rear end of an arrow
Nock (practice) - The act of setting an arrow in a bow
Nocking point (equipment) - The point on a bow string over which an arrow nock is placed

Overdrawn (measure) - A condition in which a bow string is too short for the bow; fistmele is exceeded

Plunger button (equipment) - A device used to correct an arrow's flex at the point of release
Point (equipment) - The front end of an arrow; also known as the arrowhead, head or tip
Poisons (equipment) - Toxic additions to arrow heads in order to increase hunting effectiveness

Quarrel (equipment) - A crossbow projectile; also called a bolt
Quiver (equipment) - A container for an archer's projectiles

Recurve bow (equipment) - A form of bow in which the unstrung tips curve away from the archer
Reflex bow (equipment) - A form of bow in which the entire length of the handle and arms curve away from the archer
Release (practice) - The act of firing an arrow from a bow (a.k.a. Loose)
Rest (equipment) - A device used to hold the arrow against the handle until it is released (a.k.a. Arrow rest)
Riser (equipment) - The handle section of a Bow

Safety arrow (equipment) - Arrow with Wide tip or padded head for reenactments
Self bow (equipment) - A bow made from a single piece of material (normally wood)
Serving (equipment) - Extra thread wound around a bow string in order to support the main fiber
Shaft (equipment) - The main structural element of an arrow
Shooting glove (equipment) - Protective gear for an archer's fingers
Spine (measure) - The stiffness of an arrow shaft; contrasted with Flex
Stabilizer (equipment) - A weighted rod or set of rods used to provide balance to a bow
Stave (equipment) - A strip of wood from which a bow may be made

Tab (equipment) - A small leather patch to protect the archer's fingers (a.k.a. Finger tab)
Target (equipment) - General term for the intended destination of a shot arrow
Target archery (practice) - Shooting at non-moving targets placed varying distances away
Target point (equipment) - Bullet-shaped practice head for targets
Target shooting (practice) - Competitive event that uses projectile weapons for tests of proficiency
Thumb ring (equipment) - Protective ring for an archer's thumb
Tip (equipment) - The front end of an arrow; also known as the arrowhead, head or point


Vane (equipment) - The stabilizing fin of an arrow

Wand shoot (practice) - An archery event in which arrows are shot at a slat of soft wood that is typically 6' tall and 2" wide
Welsh longbow (equipment) - A powerful medieval bow; also known as the English longbow
Wood (material) - The earliest material used for the construction of bows and arrows

Yabusame (practice) - A type of mounted archery practiced in Japan
Yew (material) - A type of wood traditionally used to make bows
Yumi (equipment) - An asymmetric Japanese bow; includes both long and short varieties (daikyu and hankyu)



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